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Types and casting in Dart

Post by Seth Ladd

Bob Nystrom, engineer on the Dart team, posted a nice response to some questions posed to the mailing list about types, assignments, and casting. I thought this was a good way to phrase the issues, so I am posting here for others to find and enjoy.

Bob's reply to "Using num, one can assign a double to an integer without error or warning?":

"

  num n = 3.56;

Here, we assign a floating point literal whose static type is double to a
variable annotated to be type num. num is a supertype of double so you're
doing an upcast here. Like most languages an upcast is always safe and OK.
No warnings here.

  int x = n;

Here, the static type of n is num and we are assigning it to a variable
whose annotated type is int. int is a *sub*type of num, so in this case we
are doing a downcast. In most statically typed languages, you would need an
explicit cast operator, like:

  int x = (int)n;

Dart is different here. It has something called "assignment compatibility"
to determine which assignments are valid. Most languages just use the
normal subtyping rules for this: an assignment is safe if you assign from a
sub- to a supertype. Dart's assignment compatibility rules also allow
assigning from a super- to a subtype.

In other words, you can *downcast* implicitly in an assignment, without
needing any kind of explicit cast. So there's no *static* warning here.
However, if you run the code in checked mode and that downcast turns out to
be invalid (as it is here), you *will* get a type error at runtime when you
try to assign a double to x.

By analogy to Java, your code is similar to:

Object n = 3.56;
Integer x = (Integer)n;

A Java compiler will allow this, but it will fail at runtime. The main
difference from Dart is that in Java you need that explicit (Integer) cast
to downcast.
"


Thanks to Ross, Ladislav, and Bob, for chiming in and helping with the original question. You can chime in, too, in the Dart mailing list.

Comments

  1. What purpose is served by allowing a downcast that *will* fail at runtime?

    ReplyDelete
  2. It's simple -- in a huge number of cases, you _know_ that it _won't_ fail at runtime. It's pretty common in dynamic languages, as far as I can tell.

    ReplyDelete
  3. I have done a lot of C# in the past, and my first thought was that it is really strange and wrong. Now i have written a lot of Dart code and i really like it. All the features of Dart which seems wrong in the first place turned out to be cool. Gilad was right about optional types :)

    ReplyDelete
  4. Can we cast to any type, not just downcast? For example, we might have an object implement two irrelevant interfaces, can we cast between them?

    I1 a = xxx;
    I2 b = a; //compiler warning since I2 is not a subtype or supertype of I1

    ReplyDelete

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